Anabolic-androgenic steroids mechanism of action and effects on performance
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) to improve performance and acquire more muscular bodies is on the rise worldwide, with increasing concern about the potential for this type of hormone to increase the risk of brain-related effects. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific evidence for the risk-benefit relation of any AAS, including its bioactivities and whether they increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction or impair cognitive function in humans. Further scientific evidence on androgens and cognition in humans will also be reviewed, anabolic-androgenic steroids mechanism of action and effects on performance. Future studies are needed to provide further insight into whether some AASs may cause cognitive dysfunction in adults and/or in children (e.g., in men), and to determine optimal dosages for individual AASs for enhancing cognitive ability.